calcium lignosulfonate

Currently, research in the field of renewable resources is actively going on, and discussions on this topic are intense. Together with cellulose, lignin makes up most of the organic matter on Earth. The chemical and technical properties of this substance help to use energy resources more efficiently and increase the productivity of feed mills. In nature, lignin acts as a binder, connecting and fixing plant cellulose fibers in wood in a process called lignification, increasing compressive strength. Thanks to this biosynthesis – the thickening of the cell’s secondary shell – the tree grows without losing strength.

Lignosulfonates or salts of lignosulfonic acids are formed as a by-product of sulfite cooking in cellulose production. Under the influence of calcium bisulfite and sulfuric acid, lignin molecules are depolymerized and sulfonated in wood. Lignosulfonates are polyelectrolytes, i.e. their molecules can contain both positively and negatively charged particles, which affect the viscosity of the substance and the strength of molecular adhesion. As binders and dispersants, they are mainly used in the production of concrete, paper, paints, but also in many other industries. In the feed industry, the complex natural polymer lignin has been used for over 40 years due to its binding properties, which facilitate the production of combined feed and polyelectrolytes, thereby reducing the aggressive effects of organic acids. In addition, it is used to produce transporters to reduce their fermentation in the rumen of ruminants. In this case, the process complicates the structure of proteins based on the properties of lignosulfonates, on Maillard reactions and reducing sugars in the composition.

As pellet feed production begins, issues with the quality of the pellets, i.e. their strength and stability, come to the surface. Recall that granulation is the pressing of particles of different structures with different physicochemical properties under the influence of pressure and temperature. The adhesion that occurs between particles of different chemical constituents (water, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, crude ash and starch) varies. These ingredients can be milled differently depending on physical properties, in particular surface structure, density, and fiber, starch and moisture content. All of this prevents components from coalescing into a single structure called a granule.

Although the working principles of feed mills are similar (grinding, conditioning, pelleting and cooling), the pelleting results and energy consumption of each mill are different because they are affected by many factors: humidity, temperature, quality of feed in air conditioning time, the thickness of the substrate and its wear, the diameter of the mold, the adjustment of the equipment, human factors, etc. Whether the customer will be satisfied with the purchase. As you know, the higher the strength of the pellets, the lower the loss of feed, the lower the amount of dust particles, and the easier it is to pour the product into the feeder.

Particle quality: effects and dependencies

The high quality of the pellets also has a positive effect on the productivity of animals and poultry, as it helps to increase feed consumption and, in addition, reduces feeding time and the use of concentrates in automatic watering systems. The reduction in the cost of producing compound feed is mainly due to energy saving. Factors that determine particle quality and their effects.

Therefore, in the production of mixed feed, it is first necessary to reduce costs, and secondly, to reduce environmental pollution.

In general, the resource cost of a pellet is proportional to its mass: the more steam and electricity consumed, the higher the mass of the pellet. Improving the energy efficiency of production can reduce energy consumption, limit steam consumption and increase hourly feed production. However, the increase in productivity is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of individual granules.In the future, this will contribute to a greater interest in the use of lignin.

The role of lignosulfonates. The strength of adhesion between particles depends on the charge. As a polyelectrolyte, charged lignin molecules exhibit the properties of surface-active substances (surfactants).

The bonding of particles within particles occurs through several types of binding. First, due to the rigid jumpers formed during particle compression. Second, with the help of capillary connections, where water sits on the surface of the particles, acting as a binder. Third, under the influence of the adhesion and cohesion produced by gelatinization, and the bonds formed after the crystallization of the reaction product.

Lignin molecule

The presence of fluid is particularly important for the emergence of binding forces. It is partly contained in food and partly brings steam and water. The basis of lignosulfonate adhesion is the formation of strong binding and coagulation properties, as well as the charge-dependent attraction at the particle surface. After cooling and drying, the particles are firmly bonded.

The dispersing properties of lignosulfonates are also due to the polarity of the molecules and their attractiveness to the surface. It reduces friction between particles. During the granulation process, this results in reduced friction in the compression channel of the matrix, thereby increasing its output and energy consumption. The effect of the application depends on the content of the liquid and its widest possible distribution, that is, it is better to use the liquid lignosulfonate than the dry powder form. For 1 ton of feed, consume 0.5-1% of the dry weight of lignosulfonate. It offers an opportunity to remove some of the difficulties in pellet production, increasing process flexibility as it allows feeding specialists to use components in the formulation that are more problematic from a pelleting standpoint. The special properties of liquid lignosulfonates are comparable to those of molasses or bard, so they can be used successfully as a substitute.

Results of using 1% lignosulfonate in experimental pig feed, which helped increase feed yield and reduce energy consumption and pellet fragmentation.

Pig experimental feed with 1% lignosulfonic acid content

LignoBondDD is ideal for reducing dust formation, increasing pellet strength and pelletizing efficiency in farm animal, poultry and fish feed. LignoBond DD is a calcium lignosulfonate with prebiotic properties due to its natural origin. This product improves conditioning and vapour absorption parameters, prevents segregation, reduces losses and increases particle strength. It is suitable for all types of pelleted feeds: high in fat, protein, fiber, urea, with special drugs. Compatible with various feed additives.